The Holy Spirit as seen in the Gospel of John

Liberty University

 

 

Holy Research Paper

The Holy Spirit as seen in the Gospel of John

A Paper Submitted To Dr. Donald Holdridge

In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For

The Course NBST 655

Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary

By

Anthony D. Padgett

February 5, 2010

 

Table of Content

Thesis  Statement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1

Diѕcuѕѕion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

Baptism by the Holy Spirit…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2

The gift of life by the Holy Spirit…………………………………………………………………………………………………………4

The well of water by the Holy Spirit……………………………………………………………………………………………………5

The rivers of living water by the Holy Spirit………………………………………………………………………………………7

The other Counselor, the Holy Spirit…………………………………………………………………………………………………..8

The breath of life of the Holy Spirit…………………………………………………………………………………………………….9

 

Concluѕion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13

Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15

 

 

 

Thesis Statement

The role that the Holy Spirit plays in the Gospel of John is very important?

 

Introduction

      John brings before us six ways in which the Holy Spirit can be viewed in his Gospel.  Now this is not to be confused with all the references to the Holy Spirit that are mentioned in the Gospel of John.   Only that it would seem that each reference mentioned falls under one of these six categories.  These six ways are as follows or as interpreted by this study.   By the baptism of the Holy Spirit in chapter 1, the gift of life by the Holy Spirit in chapter 3, by the gift of the Spirit in chapter 4, by the stream of living water in chapter 7, as the other Counselor in chapters 14-16, also sometimes referred to as the Paraclete passages,[1]  and finally in chapter 20 as the breath of life by the Holy Spirirt.  As we begin to look at the Holy Spirit in John we will see that there is so much more to John’s mentioning of the Holy Spirit than that of those listed in the Synoptics, and a direct connection to the Old Testament and the fulfilling of the prophecy.  

Diѕcuѕѕion

     The Gospel of John has more teaching about the Holy Spirit than any other Gospel.  The term that is used in John is “parakletos” meaning “advocate” or “helping presence” and is used to describe the Holy Spirit.[2]  It is equally important for us to look at the words “spirit” and “holy” individually before we discuss them further.   The Greek translation of the word “spirit” is “pneuma” and has several definitions.  First, is the third person of the triune God, the Holy Spirit, or the coeternal? with the Father and the Son?  Secondly, at times it refers in a way which emphasis’s the personality and character of the Holy Spirit, or a spirit higher than man but lower than God.  It can also refer to a movement of air or a gentle blast of the wind, hence the wind itself, or breath of nostrils or mouth.    The word holy is a little more straightforward than that of spirit. The Hebrew translation of the word holy is “qadowsh” and it means sacred, holy, Holy One, saint, set apart.[3]  These definitions are important to recognize and understand as we further look at the word spirit and holy in this study and within the context they are used.   It is also important to note that the “emphasis lies on the continuity between Jesus’ teaching and the Holy Spirit’s mission of explaining that teaching. Rather than acting independently, the Holy Spirit thus subordinates himself and his mission to Jesus.” as Kostenberger has pointed out.[4]

Baptism by the Holy Spirit:

     The heading in most Bibles of the first time the Holy Spirit is mentioned in John is listed as “The Lamb of God.” This is the title that John the Baptist uses to identify Jesus as he is approaching them.  John further explains that this is the one that he has been announcing that was coming. Now we can only assume that John the Baptist had already baptized Jesus some time earlier.  This does not mean that John did not know Jesus, only that he didn’t know that Jesus was the Coming One.[5]  We can now look at John 1:32-33 NIV to see how John identified Jesus, “Then John gave this testimony: “I saw the Spirit come down from heaven as a dove and remain on him. I would not have known him, except that the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is he who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.’  Now we can see from scripture that a dove was used as a sign of purity as early as in Genesis 8:8 when Noah released the dove from the ark to find dry land.  This is in contrast to the raven which has been used to show impurity or as unclean. The most important note here is that the Holy Spirit came down and remained on him.  The person to whom John is referring to is Jesus.  We see the term “Mevnw” is used here in verse 33 and according to the Logos Bible Study Program “Mevnw” is a Greek word meaning “to abide” or “to remain” or “to stay.”  It is used several times in the Gospels but none more than in the Gospel of John at 40 times. It is specifically in John chapters 14 -16 which are known as the Paraclete passages.[6]  This is significant to John because it is used to “express the permanency of relationship between Father and Son and Son and believer.” And the word implies that Jesus, “permanently possesses the Holy Spirit, and because he does, he will dispense the Holy Spirit to others in baptism.”[7]  God was sending down the Holy Spirit that we all may receive it but Jesus was to receive it first as the Son of God[8].  It is important to note that Jesus received the Holy Spirit clean and new, without sin, and pure as a dove.  John knew at once that when the Holy Spirit descended and then remained on Jesus, that he was Him, the one who would baptize all others with the Holy Spirit.[9] This is a direct fulfillment of the Old Testament.  With the Holy Spirit coming down and remaining in Jesus, showing that He is the Lamb of God, it gives us as believers the comfort and peace of knowing that He alone came  to take away our sins.  I believe it was important for John to list the eyewitness testimony of John the Baptist of the Holy Spirit descending upon Jesus. This directly ties the Old Testament in with the New Testament.  Though the Synoptic Gospels list the descent of the Spirit as a dove, with the voice from heaven, it does not match the role and significance that it has in John’s Gospel.[10]  John clearly shows were the others don’t that the Spirit came down on the chosen one and that through him that spirit will flow through baptism to others as believers.

The Gift of Life by the Holy Spirit:

     Now let’s look at the conversation that Jesus had with Nicodemus about being born again. This occurs in John 3:1-5 “Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a member of the Jewish ruling council. He came to Jesus at night and said, Rabbi, we know you are a teacher who has come from God. For no one could perform the miraculous signs you are doing if God were not with him.  In reply Jesus declared, I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again. How can a man be born when he is old?  Nicodemus asked. Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb to be born! Jesus answered, I tell you the truth, and no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit.”  We immediately see that there is a comparison between John 3:3 and John 3:5 were Jesus states “I tell you the truth; no one can see the kingdom or enter the kingdom of God unless he be born again or born of the water and the Spirit.” We must look at the word “again” which is from the translation of the Greek term “anōthen.”  This word in Greek means, from above, again, or all over, however, in all three instances that this phrase is used in John’s Gospel in refers to either “from above.” or “again.[11] Clearly Nicodemus thought it meant again when he asked about entering a mother’s womb for the second time.  It is for this reason that Jesus clarifies what he means in verse five by changing the ending to “born of water and the Spirit.”  Now there is some controversy to exactly what the word water is to symbolize however, I agree with Kotsenberger that the sprinkling of water refers to a single event such as the spiritual rebirth.  Jesus was teaching that this rebirth meant a “radical renewal of themselves, a new birth affected by the Spirit who comes as an advance guard of the new age.”[12]  To simply be baptized by the water means nothing, and is only an outward showing, gaining us nothing.  However if  one was baptized and washed with the water, accompanied by the inward taking of the Holy Spirit, and accepting the word,  one would be accepted into the kingdom of God.  This clearly means that one must die to their old self, putting everything behind them, asking for forgiveness of their sins, accepting Jesus Christ as their Lord and Savior, and be born again through baptism, accepting the Holy Spirit into their hearts.

The well of water by the Holy Spirit:

     The gift of the Spirit and the living water is made clear to us in John 4:10 NIV “Jesus answered her, if you knew the gift of God and who it is that asks you for a drink, you would have asked him and he would have given you living water.”  However to completely understand the true meaning of this story we must look at John 4:14, 23-24 “but whoever drinks the water I give him will never thirst.  Indeed, the water I give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.” And in verses 23 and 24, “Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks.  God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth.”  These passages are from the story of Jesus meeting the Samaritan woman at the well as he was traveling from Judea to Galilee.  Now this woman is as far removed from Nicodemus as possible.  He was a very well respected ruler of the Jews and this woman would have been considered an outcast having had many husbands and being a Samaritan. Now it is important for us to understand that the social order was that of Jews, Samaritans, and then the Gentiles.  We must understand this animosity between the Jews and the Samaritans for us to truly grasp Jesus making a Samaritan the hero of the Parable of the Good Samaritan.[13]  Since Jews normally didn’t associate with Samaritans, the woman was surprised when Jesus spoke with her and asked her for a drink.  Now Jesus asks this question as though He, the Son of Man, was really dependent upon her to fill His thirst.  Jesus used this question to reveal the gift of God and the well of the living water.[14]  Now the Samaritan woman was equally as confused as Nicodemus was with being reborn.  She believed the water that Jesus was talking about was that of fresh water, the kind that was filling the spring from below.  Being confused and still not understanding what Jesus was offering, she asks if he is greater than Jacob who gave them the well.  Jesus answers her question by telling her that those who drink from that well will continue to be thirsty, but only through him and the water he gives will they not be thirsty again.  Jesus continues to tell her that the water he freely gives will become a spring in them, welling up to eternal life.  Still confused and not quite understanding the woman asks for the water he speaks of so she will not have to keep coming to that well and be thirsty again. Then Jesus, already knowing the answer, tells her to go get her husband.  She explains that she is not married and then Jesus tells her that he knows that and what is about to come in the future.  This is where verses 23 and 24 show that we are to worship the Father in spirit and that God is the spirit and that we should worship him in spirit and in truth. What Jesus was trying to explain to her was that he means this water is a gift of the Holy Spirit, something that will refresh and cleanse a believer’s soul.  As Jesus taught about the gift of eternal life in chapter 3, in chapter 4 He shows how to sustain the energy and be rejuvenated through the Holy Spirit.  The Holy Spirit becomes a living source of energy and happiness for our heart.

The rivers of living water by the Holy Spirit:

     The significance of the Feast of Tabernacles is that it symbolizes the dedication and revelation of the Holy Spirit in the heart of man as well as his mind (Col. 11:26).   The Feast of Tabernacles represents the principle of the human soul receiving the Holy Spirit and rejoicing as its revealed.  Though the Spirit is not referred to until John 7:39,  37-38 in John can be compared to the Old Testament verse of Isaiah 58:11 when he is talking about the streams of water flowing from a person’s innermost being and that he is the dispenser of the Holy Spirit.[15]

Jesus while teaching from the temple cries out twice in John 7:28, 37 making his declaration two fold.  First, in John 7:28 NIV “Yes, you know me, and you know where I am from. I am not here on my own, but he who sent me is true. You do not know him, but I know him because I am from him and he sent me.” Jesus makes it clear that only he the Son of God has a unique relationship to the Father, and that all who hear him “cannot miss the implication of his word.”[16]  He continues to make a call for all to come to him in John 7:37 NIV  “On the last and greatest day of the Feast, Jesus stood and said in a loud voice,  If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink.”  Jesus declares that He is the water of life and that only through him can one have eternal life. Secondly, in John 7:38-39 NIV “Whoever believes in me, as the Scripture has said, streams of living water will flow from within him. By this he meant the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were later to receive. Up to that time the Spirit had not been given, since Jesus had not yet been glorified.”  Jesus declares that whoever believes in him will experience the Holy Spirit to become in him rivers of living water.  Now we can look back at John 4:14 NIV “but whoever drinks the water I give him will never thirst. Indeed, the water I give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.” That well of living water within the believer will now become a river of flowing water from him to others in the world.[17]  This was to express that the Spirit will come to live within them only after Jesus enters into heaven, and it is the Spirit who will guide them until his return.

The other Counselor, the Holy Spirit:

     Chapters 13 – 21 in John’s Gospel have different titles and approaches for many commentators, but yet they all end with the same context of Jesus’ departure and the teaching of his disciples.  Bruce suggests that the fullest teaching about the Holy Spirit comes from five passages in John, John 14:15-17; 14:25; 15:26; 16:4-11; and 16:12-15.  He describes these as presenting the Holy Spirit as “helper, interpreter, witness, prosecutor, and revealer.”[18] Burge calls chapters 13 – 21 The Book of Glory, where Jesus turns privately to his disciples during his final Passover.  It is during this period that Jesus begins to teach his disciples about many things yet to come but none more importantly than that of the Holy Spirit in terms of our personal exposure and persecution.[19]  John begins to tell us about the other comforter or counselor who is going to come and fill us or be “in” us when Jesus departs.  It is important to note that John’s Gospel uses the term “in” frequently to express the unity with the Father, as well as believers, and Jesus and the Father.[20]  Jesus says in John 14:10-11 NIV “Don’t you believe that I am in the Father, and that the Father is in me? The words I say to you are not just my own. Rather, it is the Father, living in me, who is doing his work.  Believe me when I say that I am in the Father and the Father is in me; or at least believe on the evidence of the miracles themselves.”  This becomes important when we see the shift from Jesus to the Holy Spirit who will be “in” the disciples, bringing everything full circle as the believers will now have the Holy Spirit “in” them as we will see in John 14.[21]

John 14:15-17 NIV says “If you love me, you will obey what I command. And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever, the Spirit of truth.  The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will bein you.”  It is clear to see that Jesus is going to ask our Heavenly Father to send “another counselor” to take his place.  This means that Jesus is our first counselor or comforter but another will take His place.  Jesus calls this counselor the “Spirit of the truth” which we will examine further in John 15:26 a little later.

Next in John 14:26 NIV says “But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you.” This shows that the Heavenly Father will answer Jesus’ request and send another who “will serve them, in other words, as remembrance and interpreter.”[22] This Counselor will teach all things and help  remember what the Lord has said and already taught.  However more importantly this Counselor will show  things yet to come.

In John 15:26-27 NIV we see again the “Spirit of the truth,” “When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.  And you also must testify, for you have been with me from the beginning.”  In this passage we can see many things first, is that the mission of the Spirit parallels that of Jesus and secondly the Spirit is thought of in personal terms.[23]  John continues with his concept of “the truth” while describing the Spirit.  He has already described Jesus as “the truth” and he will show that the Spirit is “the truth” as well.  Kostenberger describes the Spirit being involved in four aspects of the truth which are important to note, “He represents the truth regarding Jesus; he is the eschatological gift of God; he imparts true knowledge of God; and he is operative in both worship and sanctification.”[24]

The work of the Spirit continues as we look at John 16 and what is to come for the disciples and how important the Spirit will be for them.  John starts off this chapter by how Jesus told his disciples that bad days are ahead for them. That he did not tell them of these things before because he was here to shield them but that a day is coming that he will not be here.  Then in John 16:7 NIV he says “But I tell you the truth: It is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you.”  Jesus is telling them that only until he leaves can the Counselor come and when he does he will convict the world of its guilt in regards to sin.  The Holy Spirit will not only come as an advocate but also as a prosecuting counsel and will convict the world of its sin.[25]   This judgment is now made effective through the work of the Holy Spirit in the Church.[26]   Jesus then tells his disciples that he has much more to say, more than they probably want to hear or can stand to hear.  In John 16:13 he says “But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth.  He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come.”  Jesus on several occasions advised that he did not speak or act by his own, that his words were from the Heavenly Father.  The same is true here with the Holy Spirit, that he will not speak on his own but through the same one who he (Jesus) spoke through.   The Holy Spirit’s message has no more or less impact than that of Jesus’ message.   The Gospel of John is no doubt a prime example of the fulfillment of that promise.[27]  “What is yet to come” most likely refers to the revelations that will be open about Jesus’ ministry, death, and resurrection while here on earth.  However it also means what will be open to us about Jesus’ ministry and his coming again in generations both past and future.  Are we getting fresh revelation today? This eschatological information was for the disciples to record and for us to read.

John continues to explain that Jesus wants it known that everything that is his will be known to them, and that everything that belongs to him through the Father will be passed to them through the Spirit. So by the Holy Spirit taking what is rightly from the Son of God and making it known.  All he is doing is taking what is rightly given and  bringing glory to the Son which is glorifying the Father because what belongs to him belongs to the Son.  Though these revelations and ministrations of the Spirit directly impacted the apostles at the time, and that of the first witnesses, on what would be considered a full Christian understanding of all that Jesus did.  It makes us now focus on Jesus and the man, more than that of the Spirit and the works.[28]

As the disciples were instructed in John to go out and testify about Him, we too are to go out and testify about Jesus today.  With the Holy Spirit dwelling in our hearts, He will, remind us, guide us, and convict us of our sins.  Kostenberger makes a valuable point in saying that certain Christians groups have got off focus in their biblical teachings on the Holy Spirit by focusing on the Spirit and not Jesus as the key focus of the New Testament.  The Holy Spirit was not put here to be in front of Jesus but to exalt Christ.[29]

The breath of life of the Holy Spirit:

     The last revelation in the Gospel of John about the Holy Spirit is connected to our Christ’s resurrection and can be found in John 20:19-23 NIV, “On the evening of that first day of the week, when the disciples were together, with the doors locked for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said, “Peace be with you!”  After he said this, he showed them his hands and side. The disciples were overjoyed when they saw the Lord.   Again Jesus said, “Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you.” And with that he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive anyone his sins, they are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven.”  First we must understand the time of writing of John and that his readers would have already been familiar with the Holy Spirit. Carson puts this best, “John has preserved the theological unity of the death/exaltation of Jesus, and of the eschatological Spirit-blessing Jesus secured, not by sacrificing historical authenticity, but by drawing attention through this episode to what was already know amongst his readers.”[30] However it is more important to note that this does not refer to the sending down of the Holy Spirit as a divine person anyway, that will happen fifty days later in Acts 2:1-4. This is the inbreathing of the Holy Spirit through a risen, resurrected Christ to the born again disciples.  It is equally important to note that this is not the actual impartation of the Spirit, but as in “breathed into” as rather a symbol of Jesus’ creation of his new covenant like that of Genesis 2:7 NIV “the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.”[31]   Carson may have explained this best, “John 20:22 is not mere symbolism anticipating an endowment of the Spirit that is nowhere mentioned, it is symbolism anticipating the endowment of the Spirit that the church at the time of writing has already experienced, and of which outsiders are inevitably aware.”[32]  Bruce thinks this is a precarious assumption and that the “presence or absence of the article with pneuma (or pneuma hagion, as here) is not an infallible criterion for distinguishing between the Giver and his gifts.”[33]  Most see this as that since the Holy Spirit is given the power to fulfill the commission as per the Lord’s words, this most likely relates to the fulfillment of their commission. The receiving of the Holy Spirit here is seen as the commissioning “of the new messianic community that will go forward in the power of the Spirit, proclaiming the Good News of the forgiveness of sins in Jesus’ name.”[34]

Conclusion

     John clearly writes of Jesus’ promise to send “another” or “helping Presence” who we call the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete.  The Holy Spirit came to guide the disciples in truth, in remembrance of all that Jesus taught and for making this plain to them.[35]  The Gospel of John makes a  clear distinction between the Father and the Son, both being distinct individuals or people, the Holy Spirit is also a distinct individual. The Holy Spirit has to be a person because he grieves, teaches, and talks with us.  One God, three people; which gives us a look at the Holy Trinity even though not mentioned here in John.  The Holy Spirit lives inside the believer, helping us to grow spiritually until Jesus’ return.  The Holy Spirit is here to dwell inside us, transforming us by revealing God’s plan for our lives.  He will redeem us by filling our lives with the peace, joy, and love which comes through him.  He will comfort us in our times of need and helps us to overcome any obstacles that may come our way. He will show us the gift of life and the gift in which Jesus has instilled in us, so that we can be sent out into the world to glorify Jesus and that we may have eternal life.   Through John’s gospel he clearly shows us what Jesus has planned for us through the Holy Spirit and what part he plays in our daily walk with Him.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Barrett, C.K., The Gospel According to St. John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes
on the Greek Text
, Second Edition, Philadelphia, PA., The Westminister Press, 1978

 

Bruce, F. F., The Gospel of John; Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, Grand Rapids, MI.

William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1983.

Burge, M. Gary, Interpreting the Gospel of John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Books, 1992.

Carson, D.A., The Gospel According to John, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1991.

Dodd, C. H.  The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, Cambridge at the University Press, 1970

 

Harris III, Hall W. The Gospel of John: Introduction and Commentary, Biblical Studies Press,

L.L.C., 2001

 

Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999.

Logos Bible Study Software 4 Leaders Edition.  Copywrite 2001-2010

NIV Quest Study Bible, Grand Rapids, MI. The Zondervan Corporation, 2003


[1] Harris III, Hall W. The Gospel of John: Introduction and Commentary, Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. 2001. P 42.

[2] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 40. Who but God/the Godhead is eternal?

[3] Logos Bible Study Software 4 Leaders Edition. Copywrite 2001-2010.

[4] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 40.

[5] Carson, D.A., The Gospel According to John, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991. P.
151.

[6] Logos Bible Study Software 4 Leaders Edition. Copywrite 2001-2010.

[7] Harris III, Hall W. The Gospel of John: Introduction and Commentary, Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. 2001. P 42.

[8] Bruce, F.F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans

Publishing Company, 1983. P. 55.

[9] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 64.

[10]Carson, D.A., The Gospel According to John, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991.
P. 151.

[11] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 84.

[12] Barrett, C.K., The Gospel According to St. John, Philadelphia, PA., The Westminister Press, 1978. P. 209.

 

[13]Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 88.

[14] Logos Bible Study Software 4 Leaders Edition. Copywrite 2001-2010.

 

[15] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 109-110.

[16] Bruce, F.F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans

Publishing Company, 1983. P. 178.

 

[17] Logos Bible Study Software 4 Leaders Edition. Copywrite 2001-2010.

[18] Bruce, F.F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans

Publishing Company, 1983. P. 302.

[19] Burge, M. Gary, Interpreting the Gospel of John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Books, 1992. P. 152.

[20] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 154.

[21] Ibid., 156.

[22] Bruce, F.F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans

Publishing Company, 1983. P. 304.

 

[23]Barrett, C.K., The Gospel According to St. John, Philadelphia, PA., The Westminister Press, 1978. P. 482.

[24] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 156.

[25] Dodd, C. H. The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, Cambridge University Press, 1970.  P414.

[26] Dodd, C. H. The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, Cambridge University Press, 1970.  P414.

[27] Bruce, F.F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans

Publishing Company, 1983. P. 320.

[28] Carson, D.A., The Gospel According to John, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991.
P. 542.

[29] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 158.

[30] Carson, D.A., The Gospel According to John, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991.
P. 655.

[31] Kostenberger, J. Andreas, Encountering John, Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Academic, 1999. P 184.

[32] Carson, D.A., The Gospel According to John, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991.
P. 655.

[33] Bruce, F.F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, Grand Rapids, MI. Wm. B. Eerdmans

Publishing Company, 1983. P. 392.

[34] Kostenberger, 184.

[35] Bruce, F.F., 15.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s